Objectives: The soluble HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein, after being shed from infected cells, can cross-link its receptors on both HIV-1 infected and non-infected target cells, leading to their activation. We have assessed the impact of soluble gp120 on viral replication in CD4+/CXCR4+ T cells, via its effects on Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1/LTR. Materials and methods: Primary cord blood-derived CD4+/CXCR4+ T cells were stimulated with soluble recombinant gp120 (rgp120) from the HIV-1/HXB2 clone. The level of gene or protein expression was assessed by serial analysis gene expression (SAGE), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting or flow-cytometry analysis. Cellular division of rgp120-stimulated T cells was assessed by CFDA-SE labeling. Long terminal repeat (LTR) activity and HIV infection level were respectively measured by a chemiluminescent P-gal Reporter Gene Assay and by p24 determination. Results: We have demonstrated that rgp120 activates both PKC epsilon and its upstream effector P13K/Akt, involved in the HIV-1 replication process. Moreover, rgp120 enhances the gene, as well as protein expression of the cellular Tat cofactors Tat-Sf1 and SPT5 in primary CD4+/CXCR4+ T cells. Finally, stimulation of HIV-1 infected T cells with rgp120 was found to result in both a higher LTR-activity and an increased production of viral particles. Conclusion: Taken together, these results show that soluble gp120 contributes to HIV-1 replication and dissemination, via the activation of multiple cell signaling pathways and the induction of Tat-cofactor expression, underscoring its potential as a therapeutic target in HIV-1-mediated pathogenesis. (c) 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Soluble HIV-1 gp120 enhances HIV-1 replication in non-dividing CD4+T cells, mediated via cell signaling and Tat cofactor overexpression
Misse, D.; Gajardo, J.; Oblet, C.; Religa, A.; Riquet, N.; Mathieu, D.; Yssel, H.; Veas, F.
2005-06-10 / vol 19 / pages 897-905
gene-expression; human-immunodeficiency-virus; protein-kinase-c; cxcr4; hiv; cd4(+) t-cells; nf-kappa-b; chemokine receptor 5; down-regulation; focal adhesion kinase; gp120; hiv-replication; sage serial analysis; spt5; tat-sf1; type-1 gp120