Nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP) exist in the extracellular environment where they are agonists at P2 receptors. Both P2Y G-protein-coupled receptors and P2X ligand-gated ion channels are expressed by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, reflected in the diverse nucleotide-induced effects reported to occur in bone. Previous reports have implicated ATP as a proresorptive agent; however, these studies were unable to determine whether ATP mediated its actions directly on osteoclasts, or indirectly via osteoblasts. The development of techniques to generate human osteoclasts in vitro has allowed us to further investigate the intriguing role of extracellular nucleotides with regard to osteoclast activity. This study reports that nearly all P2-receptor-subtype mRNAs were expressed throughout human osteoclast development, and provides evidence for functional P2 receptor expression by these cells. In cultures of human osteoclasts alone, neither ATP nor UTP affected the quantity of resorption by these cells; however, in cocultures of osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells and human osteoclasts, ATP, but not UTP, greatly enhanced resorption, indicating a role for osteoblasts in mediating the proresorptive effects of ATP. Furthermore, ATP, but not UTP, elevated receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) mRNA and protein expression by UMR-106 cells. These data are consistent with observations that UMR-106 cells predominantly express P2Y(1) with low expression of P2Y(2), thereby explaining the response to ATP and not UTP, and further substantiating the involvement of osteoblasts in ATP-induced effects on osteoclasts. These results significantly advance our understanding of the role of P2 receptors in bone, and indicate that local-acting ATP may play a pivotal role in osteoclast activation at bone-resorbing sites by, inducing elevated expression of RANKL.
Adenosine triphosphate stimulates human osteoclast activity via upregulation of osteoblast-expressed receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand
Buckley, K. A.; Hipskind, R. A.; Gartland, A.; Bowler, W. B.; Gallagher, J. A.
2002-11 / vol 31 / pages 582-590
protein-kinase; kinase-activity; differentiation factor; extracellular nucleotides; osteoblast; osteoclast; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d-3; adenosine triphosphate (atp); bone-cells; inhibitory factor; nonselective cation; p-2 receptor; rat osteoblasts; receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa b ligand (rankl); resorption; stromal cells