Decreased Circulating Levels of APRIL: Questioning Its Role in Diabetes

Carvalho-Santos, A.; Ribeiro-Alves, M.; Cardoso-Weide, L. C.; Nunes, J.; Kuhnert, L. R.; Xavier, A. R.; Cunha, S.; Hahne, M.; Villa-Verde, D. M.; Carvalho-Pinto, C. E.

PLoS One

2015 / vol 10 / pages e0140150


Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects over 382 million people worldwide. Type-1 Diabetes (T1D) is classified as an autoimmune disease that results from pancreatic beta-cell destruction and insulin deficiency. Type-2 Diabetes (T2D) is characterized principally by insulin resistance in target tissues followed by decreased insulin production due to beta-cell failure. It is challenging to identify immunological markers such as inflammatory molecules that are triggered in response to changes during the pathogenesis of diabetes. APRIL is an important member of the TNF family and has been linked to chronic inflammatory processes of various diseases since its discovery in 1998. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate APRIL serum levels in T1D and T2D. For this, we used the ELISA assay to measure serum APRIL levels of 33 T1D and 30 T2D patients, and non-diabetic subjects as control group. Our data showed a decrease in serum APRIL levels in T1D patients when compared with healthy individuals. The same pattern was observed in the group of T2D patients when compared with the control. The decrease of serum APRIL levels in diabetic patients suggests that this cytokine has a role in T1D and T2D. Diabetes is already considered as an inflammatory condition with different cytokines being implicated in its physiopathology. Our data suggest that APRIL can be considered as a potential modulating cytokine in the inflammatory process of diabetes.

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10.1371/journal.pone.0140150 PONE-D-15-27529 [pii]

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