Cyclin A is a positive regulatory component of kinases required for the progression through S phase and for the transition between the G2 and M phases of the cell division cycle. Previous studies conducted in established cell lines and in primary human T lymphocytes, have demonstrated that the promoter of its gene is under negative transcriptional control in quiescent cells. The DNA sequences mediating this repression have been delineated through in vitro mutagenesis as well as in vivo genomic footprinting experiments. Indirect observations suggest the involvement of proteins related to the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb). Using primary fibroblasts from either pRb(-/-), p107(-/-), p130(-/-) or p107(-/-)/p130(-/-) mice, we show in this work that mutation of the pRb gene has the more profound effect on cyclin A transcription. Finally, normal fibroblasts cultured in suspension fail to express cyclin A and can no longer enter S phase and proliferate, revealing thus a dependence of cyclin A expression on cell anchorage. Our work suggests the existence of at least two sets of regulators controlling cell cycle progression. On the one hand, proteins like cyclin D1, whose expression is a direct consequence of the activation of the ras signalling pathway and on the other hand, proteins like cyclin A which are secondary response effectors. As a result, growth factor stimulation leads to a transcriptional activation of the former set, while the transcription of the latter set is under the control of a repressor whose effect is alleviated after triggering the ras cascade. The status of pRb thus dictates whether cells continue their progression through the cell cycle when ras is mutated, probably by allowing the uncontrolled expression of critical genes like cyclin A.
[Cyclin A: a good markers for the study of cell cycle control and tumor progression?]
Philips, A.; Huet, X.; Plet, A.; Rech, J.; Vignais, M. L.; Vie, A.; Blanchard, J. M.
C R Seances Soc Biol Fil
1998 / vol 192 / pages 223-30
Humans; Animals; Mice; Mice, Knockout; Neoplasm Invasiveness; Disease Progression; *Cell Cycle; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic; *Genes, Retinoblastoma; Biological Markers; Cyclin A/analysis/genetics/*physiology; Mutagenesis; Neoplasms/pathology/*physiopathology; Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology/physiology