Serum stimulation of resting cells is mediated at least in part at the transcriptional level by the activation of numerous genes among which c-fos constitutes a model. Serum response factor (SRF) forms a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (SRE) with an accessory protein p62TCF/Elk-1. Both proteins are the targets of multiple phosphorylation events and their role is still unknown in the amino terminus of SRF. While the transcriptional activation domain has been mapped between amino acids 339 and 508, the DNA-binding and the dimerization domains have been mapped to between amino acids 133-235 and 168-235, respectively, no role has been proposed for the amino-terminal portion of the molecule. We demonstrate in the present work that amino acids 95 to 100 contain a stretch of basic amino acids that are sufficient to target a reporter protein to the nucleus. Moreover, this sequence appears to be the only nuclear localization signal operating in SRF. Finally, whereas the global structure around this putative nuclear location signal is reminiscent of what is found in the SV40 T antigen, the casein kinase II phosphorylation site does not determine the rate of cyto-nuclear protein transport of this protein.
Nuclear import of serum response factor (SRF) requires a short amino-terminal nuclear localization sequence and is independent of the casein kinase II phosphorylation site
Rech, J.; Barlat, I.; Veyrune, J. L.; Vie, A.; Blanchard, J. M.
J Cell Sci
1994-11 / vol 107 ( Pt 11) / pages 3029-36
Humans; Animals; Mice; Amino Acid Sequence; Molecular Sequence Data; Phosphorylation; Base Sequence; Cell Nucleus/metabolism; Cell Line; Gene Expression; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed; Rats; DNA-Binding Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism; Transfection; Cricetinae; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism; Binding Sites/genetics; Chromosome Mapping; Cloning, Molecular; beta-Galactosidase/genetics/metabolism; Biological Transport, Active; Casein Kinase II; DNA/genetics; Nuclear Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism; Serum Response Factor