ABSTRACT: Among the cytokines that regulate B-cell homeostasis are the TNF-like ligands B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS; also B-cell activation factor) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). BLyS and APRIL share two receptors; that is, B-cell maturation antigen and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor. Therapeutic approaches using biologics are limited for treatment of lupus patients. One previously approved drug is belimumab, which antagonizes the B-cell stimulator BLyS. Atacicept, another biologic inhibiting BLyS and APRIL, was terminated for serious adverse events – raising the question of whether APRIL should be neutralized in autoimmune diseases.