We compared human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA populations in the different fractions of breast milk (lactoserum, lipid layer, cell pellet) and between right and left breasts in four HIV-1-infected mothers by analyzing the hypervariable env C2-V5 region. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral quasispecies revealed that RNA populations and DNA populations were clearly distinct and that viral RNA sequences were similar in lipid layer and lactoserum in the milk of 3 out of 4 mothers. Comparison of viral DNA between milk from right and left breast showed a differential distribution of variants in three mothers. In contrast, RNA variants detected from milk of the two breasts were mixed in 3 out of 4 mothers. This study suggests that each mammary gland is subjected to microenvironmental pressure that may differ from the contralateral breast.
Diversity of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk from HIV-1-infected mothers
Becquart, P.; Courgnaud, V.; Willumsen, J.; Van de Perre, P.
2007-07-05 / vol 363 / pages 256-60
S0042-6822(07)00088-8 [pii] 10.1016/j.virol.2007.02.003
Female; Humans; Genetic Variation; Phylogeny; HIV-1/*genetics; DNA, Viral/*genetics; HIV Infections/*virology; Milk, Human/virology; RNA, Viral/*genetics; Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics