There is mounting evidence that replication defects are the major source of spontaneous genomic instability in the cell and that S phase checkpoints are the principle defense against such instability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S phase checkpoints can be provoked by either depletion of dNTPs or DNA damage. In both cases the checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53 act to suppress late origin firing, stabilize slowed or stalled replication forks and prevent S phase progression until conditions are appropriate for the resumption of DNA replication. The present review highlights recent work emphasizing the central importance of replication forks, not just as targets, but also as sensors and primary effectors of checkpoint responses, and identifies the roles played by specific fork-associated factors in these processes.
Multiple roles of replication forks in S phase checkpoints: sensors, effectors and targets
Pasero, P.; Shimada, K.; Duncker, B. P.
2003-12 / vol 2 / pages 568-72
Animals; *DNA Replication; Nucleic Acid Conformation; Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism; S Phase/*physiology; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics